Geophex Ltd.
30 years of excellence in EM instrumentation +1 (919) 839-8515

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(CS)= case study

GEM-2 & GEM-3 handheld

The GEM-2 - How it works
The GEM-2 - How it works - Detailed
Small frequency-domain EM induction sensors 
Depth of Investigation for small EM sensors 
The GEM-2 multi-frequency EM sensor 
GEM-2: detecting pipelines and sinkholes (CS) 
Real-time resistivity sounding with a GEM-2 
The GEM-3 broadband EM sensor 
GEM-3M: A Ground Imager with a Local Navigator 

Soil and Groundwater Contamination

Combined frequency-domain EM and electrical resistivity surveys of groundwater flow in Nebraska Sand Hills USA (CS) 
Commercial soil impact assessment with the GEM-2 
Geophysical characterization and monitoring of subsurface drip irrigation - Powder River Basin Wyoming USA (CS) 
Ground Electromagnetic Survey (GEM-2) of subsurface hydrocarbon contaminant dispersion (CS) 
Improved Understanding of Permafrost Controls on Hydrology in Interior Alaska 
Multi Frequency EM Surveys of Near-Surface Migration Pathways Surrounding a CO2 Injection well 
Natural Gas Explosions in Hutchinson Kansas - Locating Abandoned Brine Wells by High-resolution Magnetic and Electromagnetic Survey 
Ohio EPA fact sheet - Soil contamination surveys (CS) 
Real-time Resistivity Sounding Using A Hand-Held Broadband Electromagnetic Sensor 
Reynolds International Technical Summary Sheet: GEM-2 electromagnetic ground conductivity mapping 
Using The Electromagnetic Method To Locate Abandoned Brine Wells In Hutchinson Kansas (CS) 

Underground Surveys

Detecting and imaging hard-to-find abandoned wells and pipelines (CS) 
Comparison of detection of various undreground structures 
Cloud chamber buried pipe detection with a GEM-2.pdf 
Electromagnetic detection of buried metallic 
EM detection of buried metallic objects 
Electromagnetic Induction Spectroscopy (EMIS) 

Undersea Applications

Seafloor characterization by EM benthic profiling (CS) 
Mapping of marine surficial sediments by benthic EM profiling 
ROV-towed GEM-3 EM sensor (CS) 
Fingerprinting of submarine freshwater seepage 
Measurement of sea ice thickness 

Archaeology & Forensic

Iraq Weapons inspection 
Geophysical surveys in Jordan 
Archaeological studies with EM in Jordan 


GEM-2A broadband airborne EM sensor 
Identifying near-surface migration pathways with an airborne EM sensor 
Inversion of helicopter EM data 
Dielectric mapping using airborne EM data 
Quad–quad resistivity in airborne EM mapping 
Airborne resistivity and susceptibility mapping 
Identification of mineral deposits using airborne EM spectra  


GEM-2, GEM-3 and GEM-5 Sensor Configurations
Magnetometers and electro-magnetometers 
Conductivity and susceptibility mapping.pdf 
Mapping of earth with continuous conductivity variation 
Inversion of time-domain airborne EM data 
Differential parameter method for airborne EM mapping 
Imaging underground structures 
Airborne EM mapping 
Airborne resistivity data leveling 
Subsurface imaging with broadband EM 


Diagnosing the_Earth 
Planetary exploration with an EM sensor 


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Geophex Ltd.      605 Mercury street, Raleigh NC 27603 U.S.A.       Fax: +1 (919) 230-9900       Telephone: +1 (919) 839-8515